In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods). In many languages, the class name is used as the name for the class (the template itself), the name for the default constructor of the class (a subroutine that creates objects), and as the type of objects generated by instantiating the class; these distinct concepts are easily conflated.
When an object is created by a constructor of the class, the resulting object is called an instance of the class, and the member variables specific to the object are called instance variables, to contrast with the class variables shared across the class.
In some languages, classes are only a compile-time feature (new classes cannot be declared at runtime), while in other languages classes are first-class citizens, and are generally themselves objects (typically of type
Class or similar). In these languages, a class that creates classes is called a metaclass.
A class in education has a variety of related meanings.
It can be the group of students which attends a specific course or lesson at a university, school, or other educational institution, see Form (education).
It can refer to a course itself, e.g., a class in Shakespearean drama.
It can be the group of students at the same level in an institution: the freshman class; or the group of students which graduates from the institution at the same time: the Class of 2005 (cf. alumnus/a). The term can be used in a slightly more general context, such as "the graduating class."
It can also refer to the classroom, in the building or venue where such a lesson is conducted.
In some countries' educational systems (such as Taiwan's), it can refer to a subdivision of the students in an academic department, consisting of a cohort of students of the same academic level. For example, a department's sophomores may be divided into three classes.
In countries such as the Republic of Ireland, India, Germany, and in the past Sweden, the word can mean a grade: 1st class is ages 4–5, 2nd class is ages 6–7, 3rd class is ages 8–9, 4th class is ages 9–10, 5th class is ages 10–11, 6th class is ages 11–12, and 9th class is ages 14–15.
General, Finnish: kenraali is the highest officer's rank in Sweden and Finland. In Sweden, it is held by the Supreme Commander (Swedish: överbefälhavare) of the Swedish Armed Forces and the monarch. In Finland, it is held by the Chief of Defence. In Sweden, the monarch still holds the nominal rank of General as well as Admiral and General of the Air Force.
Finnish Defence Forces rank of kenraali is comparable to Ranks of NATO armies officers as OF-9.
In peacetime the rank of Full General is reserved for the Commander of Finnish Defence Forces. Sometimes a General's branch of service is indicated in the rank. So far Finland has had seventeen of jalkaväenkenraali (General of Infantry), a few of jääkärikenraali (Jägergeneral), two of ratsuväenkenraali (General of Cavalry) and one tykistönkenraali (General of Artillery). Marshal Mannerheim himself was the other one of the two Generals of Cavalry before his promotion to Field Marshal.
General, in comics, may refer to:
It may also refer to:
The General (train numbers 48 and 49) was the Pennsylvania Railroad's number two train between New York and Chicago. Only a bit slower than the Broadway Limited, it had no extra fare and for a time before World War Two, carried more passengers than the Broadway Limited or the New York Central's Twentieth Century Limited.
The General was inaugurated in 1937, and carried coaches and Pullmans. It received some new lightweight equipment in 1938 as part of the fleet of modernism, but it was mostly heavyweight until 1940. It was the only "Fleet of Modernism" train to be streamlined without an observation car. It lost its coaches when the Advance General was inaugurated in 1940. It was re-equipped with lightweight sleeping cars from both the pre-war Broadway, and new cars from post-war orders. At this time, it also carried the Broadway's pre-war observation cars. In 1951 the General lost its all-Pullman status when it was combined with the all-coach Trail Blazer for non-peak travel periods only. In 1952 this consolidation became permanent, and by 1960, the Trail Blazer name was dropped. In 1967 the General was renamed the Broadway Limited when that train lost its numbers and all-Pullman status.